Despite peaceful development of cross-strait relations over the past eight years, the growing Taiwanese identity has highlighted the marginal effectiveness of Chinese national identity on the island. As more people on Taiwan nowadays identify themselves as Taiwanese, rather than Chinese or both, people in the mainland have worked hard to reconstruct the concept of China through political communication, economic integration, social exchange and cultural assimilation across the Taiwan Strait. New terms such as “two-shores as close members of the same family”（两岸一家亲）and “realizing the Chinese dream by both”（共圆中国梦）have been created and added into the existing political vocabularies of “a community of two-shore destinies”（两岸命运共同体）, and the “great rejuvenation of Chinese nation” (中华民族的伟大复兴). Chinese national identity is both indigenous and reconstructive. The ancient concept of middle kingdom has been enriched continually, thanks to political expansion and cultural assimilation throughout history. From 1949 to 1979, amid political confrontation and military tension, Chinese people on the mainland were educated to liberate Taiwan and alleviate the misery of its people by bringing the island back to its motherland. From 1979 on, Taiwan’s development experience and increasing cross-strait exchanges have expanded mainlanders’ imagination of modernization and understanding of national identity. Political détente intertwined with periodic crisis, economic benefits accompanying social inequality, different understandings of modern history despite similar cultural backgrounds, and, not least, the growing Taiwanese identity regardless of power turnover between different parties, have suggested to the mainland that reconstruction of Chinese national identity across the Taiwan Strait will not be simple. It requires not only economic modernization and integration, mutually cultural exchange and assimilation, reinterpretation of contemporary Chinese history and stable political relations between the two entities prior to China’s reunification, but also improvement of public governance and political engineering in the mainland. In other words, reconstruction of Chinese national identity is a long project involving all people on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait.